BWF Research Projects

BWF provides the opportunity for research institutions and individuals to apply for research grants to assist in the funding of applied sports science research in badminton.

The BWF Sports Science Commission has three key goals and the research grants assist in achieving these goals:

  1. To encourage and widen interest and investment in applied research in Badminton.
  2. To improve the level and quantity of scientific material available to players, coaches and badminton practitioners.
  3. To contribute towards the increased knowledge of performance and safety at the international level – of coaches and players.

List of BWF research projects 

Consistency in the Badminton Jump Smash

Abdurrahman et al._Loughborough University

The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in strategy and technique adopted in the badminton jump smash between players of differing levels of performance outcome variability.


Determining Instantaneous Shuttlecock Velocity: Overcoming the Effects of a Low Ballistic Coefficient

Naylor et al._Loughborough University

The purpose of this study was to develop a method for accurate determination of post-impact instantaneous shuttlecock velocity as well as the identification of racquet-shuttlecock contact timing for the badminton jump smash.


Optimum Performance in the Badminton Jump Smash

Miller et al._Loughborough University

The purpose of this study was to identify the technique factors that contribute to players producing high shuttlecock velocities, with the aim of being able to inform coaches what to encourage in players when coaching, or recognise during the talent identification process.


Explorative Study on Muscle Strength and Muscle Strength Ratios in Top National and International Badminton Players

Felder et al._Olympic Training Center Rhineland Palatinate Saarland

This aim of this study was to obtain an overview of the muscular strength ratios and the strength values of the key badminton-specific muscle groups.


Analysis of the Short Serve in Badminton and Training to Improve the Short Serve

Wilkie et al._Edith Cowan University

This research aimed to investigate the movement patterns associated with the accuracy-based skill of the short serve, and; understand how elite players vary their movement when performing the short serve. Additionally, a training program was developed and implemented aimed at improving short serve accuracy and the effectiveness of this training intervention was assessed.


The Effect of Strengthening the Muscles of the Foot on Common Ligament Injury Mechanism in Females Participating in Court Sports

van der Merwe et al._Massey University

The aim of this project is therefor to investigate the effect that footwear condition and strengthening specific muscles acting on the will have on the injury mechanism associated with ACL and lateral ankle sprain injuries.


Changes in Explosive Strength After Badminton Match Play and Relationship with Injury

Girard et al._Murdoch University

The aim of this study was to assess the time course of changes in maximal and rapid muscle torque production capacity of plantar flexors (PF) and dorsi flexors (DF) in response to badminton match play.



Comparison of Joint Loading in Badminton Lunging between Professional and Amateur Badminton Players

Fu et al._Ningbo University and University of the West of Scotland

The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematic motion and kinetic loading differences of the right knee and ankle while performing a maximal right lunge.


Lunge Position Analysis of Men's Single Badminton Player by Kinematics and Kinetics Analysis

Adiprawita et al._Institut Teknologi Bandung

This study aimed to analyze the lunges position mechanism and use to predict the likelihood of back pain injury caused by fatigue.



An exploratory investigation of patellofemoral joint loadings during directional lunges in badminton

Yu et al._Loudi Vocational and Technical College

This project was aimed to reveal the knee joint kinematics and kinetics and
investigate the contact force and cartilage von Mises stress via subject-specific musculoskeletal modelling analysis and finite element simulation based on the medical images.



Spatial Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in International Badminton Players Performing the Forehand Smash

Afzal et al._Loughborough University

The purpose of the study was to identify and compare any emergent SATO relationships utilised by international badminton players performing the forehand smash, under two spatio-temporal conditions.

Adjusted Landing Technique Reduces the Load on the Achilles Tendon in Badminton Players

Kaldau et al._Copenhagen University Hospital

The study aimed to investigate if recreational players could reduce the load in the AT when adopting the SKJ technique compared to their habitual landing technique with the foot in a neutral position and secondarily to compare the AT force between recreational players and elite players.

Workflow assessing the effect of Achilles tendon rupture on gait function and metatarsal stress: Combined musculoskeletal modeling and finite element analysis

Sun et al._Ningbo University

The purpose of the current research is to develop a methodology that
could improve the finite element model derived foot internal stress prediction for ATR clinical and rehabilitation applications.

Intelligent prediction of lower extremity loadings during badminton lunge footwork in a lab-simulated court

Yu et al._Ningbo University

This project was aimed to investigate, estimate, and monitor the knee and ankle joint loadings of badminton athletes from lab test with ‘gold-standard’ facilities to on-court intelligent analysis.

Overhead position analysis of men's singles badminton player by kinematics and kinetics analysis

Adiprawita et al._Institut Teknologi Bandung

The aim of this study is to examine the effect of overhead movement on ground reaction force (GRF), moment, and power in ankle, elbow, hip, knee during landing phase with two conditions (normal and fatigue conditions).

Modelling badminton movement for injury prevention and performance enhancement

Mangera et al._University of Witwatersrand

The study aims to evaluate the injury risk associated with various landing techniques following a jump smash, namely toe-first landing, flat-footed landing and heel first landing.


Principal Component Analysis of the Running Ground Reaction Forces With Different Speeds

Yu et al._Loudi Vocational and Technical College

This study was aimed to investigate the variances of GRFs in rearfoot striking runners across incremental speeds.

Influence of Torsional Stiffness in Badminton Footwear on Lower Limb Biomechanics

Shen et al._Ningbo University

This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the influence of three different levels of torsional stiffness in badminton shoes on biomechanical characteristics, sports performance, and injury risk in badminton players.

Influence of Torsional Stiffness in Badminton Footwear on Lower Limb Biomechanics

Yu et al._Ningbo University

This study aimed to analyse the dose–response effect of incremental wedge hardness on typical badminton footwork.

Impact of Eight Weeks of Plyometric Training on Jump Parameters in Junior Badminton Players

Frohlich et al._Saarland University, Institute for Sport Science

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an eight-week periodized PT program on jumping height, agility and power among male and female junior badminton players, using high-impact bilateral plyometric exercises.


Effect of Carbohydrate and Caffeine Ingestion on Badminton Performance Following Fatiguing Exercise

Clarke et al._Coventry University

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of ingesting carbohydrate and caffeine on measures that are central to success in badminton.


Neuromuscular Fatigue Following a Singles Badminton Match

Lin et al._Edith Cowan University

The aim of this study was to investigate changes in knee extensor neuromuscular function after a simulated 1 hour badminton singles match in relation to the number of lunges performed in the match.


Physiological Profile and Energy Expenditure of High Level Badminton Players

Esposito et al._Università degli Studi di Milano

The aims of this study were: (i) to compare the HR–̇2 relationship determined on the field during badminton-specific tasks to that found in the laboratory during a standard treadmill test.


Badminton Specific Fitness Training Improves Badminton Performance and Reduces Body Fat in Danish College Students – A Comparison of Regular High School Badminton and Specific Badminton Fitness Training

Madsen et al._University of Copenhagen

The aim of the study was to investigate a newly developed Danish Badminton Fitness concept (B-FIT) investigating health related markers and specific badminton performance among Danish high school students, some recreationally active but none involved in regular badminton activities, compared to a standard high school 8-week badminton program (BAD).


The Effect Badminton Specific Exercise on Badminton Serve Performance in Competition and Practice Climates

Duncan et al._Coventry University

This study examined the effects of changes in physiological and psychological arousal on badminton short and long serve performance in competitive and practice climates.


Metabolic and Hormonal Responses, and Fluid and Electrolyte Status Following Badminton Matches in Junior Players: Implications for Player Recovery

Ramachandran_Kannur University

The purpose of the study is to investigate the metabolic and hormonal responses, and fluid and electrolyte status following badminton matches.



Impact of Several Consecutive Matches in a Day on Physical Performance in Elite Junior Badminton Players

Fernandez-Fernandez et al._University of León

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of playing several badminton matches (one singles and one doubles) on the same day on physical performance in elite junior players, during an international junior championship.



The Effectiveness of the BWF Shuttle Time programme on children’s fundamental movement skills

Duncan et al._Coventry University

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Physiological Characteristics of Men's Double Badminton Players

Aprianto et al._Institut Teknologi Bandung

This study aimed to examine the physiological characteristics of Indonesian
Badminton young players and to use the findings to plan training with greater precision



Does ischemic pre-conditioning during the recovery period between two successive matches preserve physical performance in badminton doubles players?

Girard et al._University of Western Australia

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of IPC on between-match recovery in physical performance, as well as associated changes in
muscle oxidative profile during successive badminton matches.

The Effect of Perceptual Training with Anxiety on the Anticipatory Judgments of Elite Badminton Players

Alder et al._Liverpool John Moores University

The aim of this study was to examine the training of anticipation in badminton using video simulation under anxious conditions and the transfer of learning to high anxiety conditions and the field.


Quantifying the Role of Anticipation in Badminton during Competition; The Impact of Situational Constraints, Game Format, Match Stage and Outcome of Match

Alder et al._Leeds Becket University

This project aimed to identify: (a) the average response time of elite level badminton players, (b) the frequency of anticipatory behaviours which occur in elite level badminton and (c) how contextual factors such as format of the game (i.e. women’s, men’s, singles and doubles matches), the outcome of the match (i.e. win, lose), and the stage of the match (i.e. set 1, set 2) impact on both average response time and frequency of anticipatory behaviours.


The Impact of Physiological Stress on Performance Effectiveness and Processing Efficiency in a video-based badminton-anticipation task: From Testing to Training

Alder et al._Leeds Becket University

This project aimed to identify: (a) the impact of badminton-specific physiological stress on perceptual-cognitive anticipation in badminton, and key underlying mechanisms, (b) the effects of combining anticipation training in badminton with high physiological stress to see if there are any benefits of training under stressors that are common to the performance environment.


Do You Feel What I Feel? The Developmental Psychobiosocial States in Competitive Badminton

Chia-Smith_Loyola University Maryland

This study examines the extent to which psychobiosocial states of elite badminton players vary by age.


An Investigation of the Demands Faced and Support Needed by Elite Dual Career Adolescent Badminton Players and Their Entourage

Sellars et al._Cardiff Metropolitan University

This study aims to (1) Describe the demands and challenges dual career adolescent badminton players and their entourage faced throughout a badminton season; (2) Identify the most demanding periods for players throughout a badminton season; (3) Explore the support needs of dual career badminton players and their entourage during these demanding periods.


Psychological Factors Associated with Injuries in Badminton

Broadbent et al._Brunel University

This explorative study had three main aims (1) to examine the differences in
psychological factors between badminton players, of all skill levels, who had experienced an injury in the last 24 months and those that had not been injured;
 (2) to examine the relationship between number of injuries that a player had sustained and psychological factors; (3) to examine whether the psychological factors associated with injuries altered depending on the type
of injury, the body region effected, and the cause of the injury.


The Validity and Reliability of an Established Series of Badminton-Specific Field Tests

Hughes et al._Cardiff Metropolitan University

The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the test procedures used over the last fifteen years in the assessment of fitness in English Junior Badminton players.


Development of an Agility Test for Badminton Players and Assessment of Its Validity, Reliability, and Specificity

Louriero et al._Cruzeiro do Sul University

The aims of this research project were (1) to develop a new agility test that assess both the perceptual and motor capacity, (2) to examine the test’s concurrent and construct validity and its test-retest reliability, and (3) to evaluate the specificity of this test to badminton players.


The impact of badminton lessons on health and wellness of young adults with intellectual disabilities: a pilot study

Chen et al._Mississippi State University

The aims of this research project were (1) to develop a new agility test that assess both the perceptual and motor capacity, (2) to examine the test’s concurrent and construct validity and its test-retest reliability, and (3) to evaluate the specificity of this test to badminton players.


Anticipation in young badminton players

Carvalho3 et al.

Differences between real and virtual tasks and the influence of playing and training experience.


The Effect of Eight-Week Swiss Ball Training on the Integration of Functional Movements and Balance of Teenage Badminton Players

Saberian Amirkolaei et al _ Allameh Tabataba’i University

Although injuries are an inevitable part of sports, exercise as a tool to prevent sports-related injuries and their consequences has caught the attention of many researchers in recent years. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of Swiss ball training on the integration of functional movement of teenage badminton players and their balance.

Acute And Overuse Injuries In European Junior Badminton Players

Petrinovic et al _ School of Kinesiology

The main aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, location and severity of acute and overuse injuries in junior badminton players, aged under 19 years old (17-19 years). the most common sites of injury were also studied. the correlation between their anthropometric status, foot alignment and injury was examined. in addition, differences in explosive strength between  the injured and non-injured junior badminton players was evaluated.


Influence of Badminton Exercises on Prevention and Treatment of Myopia

National Badminton Federation of Russia

The Badminton Against Myopia Project began in 2013 with the aim of reducing the number of school-age children that suffer from or are at risk of myopic eye disease globally.

Training and injuries among world elite junior badminton players – Identifying the problems

Niels Christian Kaldau et al _ Sports Orthopedic Research Center - Copenhagen, Department of Orthopedic Surgery

The game of badminton has evolved since the early injury epidemiology studies. Since there is no published literature on injuries in elite junior badminton players from an international cohort, this study provides an updated reference of injuries in this population to inform future injury prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to report injury prevalence and training hours in elite junior badminton players participating at the World Junior Championships in 2018.

Hip Profile in World Elite Junior Badminton Players: Impingement and Range of Motion Data from the World Junior Badminton Championship 2018

Niels Christian Kaldau et al _ Sports Orthopedic Research Center - Copenhagen, Department of Orthopedic Surgery

Badminton is played with repetitive high loading to the hip with lunging and jumps. Early hip replacements in former elite badminton players due to OA seem to be a problem. There are no published values for ROM and impingement of the hip in badminton. The purpose is to report ROM and impingement of the hip in elite junior badminton players and to report any differences between sex and ethnicities.

Mechanism for shoulder pain and injury in elite badminton players

Zhou et al _ The University of Tokyo

To detect the mechanisms for shoulder pain and injury during forehand overhead stroke using the questionnaire and 2D video analysis

A lateral ankle sprain during a lateral backward step in badminton: A case report of a televised injury incident

Fong et al _ Loughborough University

This study presents a kinematic analysis of an acute lateral ankle sprain incurred during a televised badminton match. The kinematics of this injury were compared to those of 19 previously reported cases in the published literature

IndEsPrev: A prospective, international, injury prevention study

Navandar et al _ Loughborough University

This study aimed (1) to analyze the influence of a 15-min game on the physical performance in men and women badminton players on measures of jump, agility, and flexibility performance variation after the match; and (2) to compare differences between young, elite male and female badminton players in the discrete and continuous variables registered using Linear Position Transducers during the squat and bench press.

Development of the shoulder joint screening test criteria to prevent shoulder pain in Japanese Badminton Players

Warashina_ Tokyo Keizai University

The main research question in this study is that “Where the cut-off value would be in the shoulder joint flexibility of badminton players with shoulder pain?”. Establishing the shoulder joint flexibility cut-off value would be useful to detect and prevent further severe injuries for badminton players.


Examining injury prevalence in the world of badminton. A study of engagement, exposure and injury

Alder et al_ Leeds Beckett University

This project will identify relationships between player practice history, perceived coach leadership styles and the experience of injury burden and dropout in badminton.

Assessing the Association of Shoulder Pain Risk with Physical Fitness in Badminton Players at National Tournament Level

Zhou et al _ The University of Tokyo

This study aimed to identify the association of shoulder pain with physical fitness in elite university badminton players participating in the national tournament via medical check-ups.

Knee Joint Loading of Scissor-Kick Jump Landings: A Comparison Between Elite and Recreational Badminton Player

Nedergaard et al _ Copenhagen University Hospital

The purpose of this study was to compare the knee joint kinematics and kinetics of elite and recreational male badminton players during scissor-kick jump landings.

Qualitative Temporal Structure And Performance In Badminton Competition

Abstract_Rivas et al._University of Madrid

The aim of the study was to show that the both the temporal structure of badminton and the outcome, for both men and women are influenced by the relative quality between the players as well as other variables such as, match status, score and game period.


Performance Structure Analysis of the men's and women's badminton doubles matches in the Olympic Games from 2008 to 2016

Abián-Vicén et al._Badminton Federation of Castilla-La Mancha

The purpose of this study was to compare the timing factors and notational structure of top world level badminton in men’s and women’s doubles matches among the Olympic Games in Beijing, London and Rio to observe the evolution of this sport between 2008 and 2016.


Design, Validation, and Reliability of an Observational Instrument for Technical and Tactical Actions in Singles Badminton

Torres-Luque et al._University of Jaén

The main objective of this research was to design, validate, and estimate the reliability of an observational instrument for the analysis of the tactical and technical actions in individual badminton.

Effect of Scaling Task Constraints on the Learning Processes of Under-11 Badminton Players during Match-Play

Ortega-Toro et al._ University of Murcia

The purpose of the study is to analyze the incidence of reducing the court size (from 13.40 m × 5.18 m to 11.88 m × 5.18 m) and net height (from 1.55 m to 1.30 m) for under-11 badminton players on the following technical and tactical variables: (a) service area; (b) stroke effectiveness; (c) kinds of technical strokes; (d) players’ hitting area; (e) shuttle landing area; (f) shuttle flight; and (g) rally length.

The Impact of Badminton on Health Markers in Sedentary Females.

Patterson et al._St Marys University

Thus the purpose of the study was to examine the effect of regular participation in recreational badminton in untrained women throughout an eight week intervention and compare it with a similar period of running.


AirBadminton for physical activity and well-being: post-covid19

Perez-Turpin et al._University of Alicante

The main objective of the study is to analyze the suitability of Airbadminton on the acquired sports commitment and the classroom climate generated through the practice of Airbadminton


Badminton improves neuromotor skills and functioning: Encouraging sports among older adults of United Arab Emirates

Hazari_Gulf Medical University

The study aims to analyse the effects of Badminton on
Cardiovascular & Neuromuscular function among older adults with and without noncommunicable disease in United Arab Emirates.


Does badminton participation contribute to holistic health benefits among recreational players

Ong et al._Tunku Abdul Rahman University of Management and Technology

The present study employs a holistic approach towards understanding the wellness benefits of playing badminton among recreational players, which involve examining the physical health status and investigating the perception of health benefits (i.e., physical, psychological, emotional and social aspects) acquired from badminton participation.


Qualitative Analysis of Para-Badminton's Psycophysical and Social Impact

Alberti et al._University of Rome TorVergata

The purpose of this scientific research was to qualitatively assess the benefits reported by the practice of Para-Badminton in physics, psychological and social.


Are Technical and Timing Components in Para-Badminton Classifications Different?

Strapasson_Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul

The purpose of this research is to investigate the frequency of technical components and timing characteristics in the PBd categories of WH1(Wheelchair/severe impairment) and WH2 (Wheelchair/minor impairment) and to compare between classes.


Physiological and metabolic responses of parabadminton athletes to field simulated effort according to functional classification and court size

Oliveira et al._Federal University of Pernambuco

The present investigation aimed to identify the physiological and metabolic responses in Para badminton athletes, according to functional classification and court size.


Developmental and Professional Activities of Elite Badminton Players

Ford et al._Liverpool John Moores University

The aim of this research was to examine the amount and types of developmental and professional activities engaged in by elite badminton players in European and Malaysia and the association to attainment and skill acquisition.


Player development systems in the performance pathway in four world-leading badminton nations

Julian North et. al._Leeds Beckett University

A literature review and interviews with experts from Indonesia, Korea, Denmark and Spain.


Facilitating dual career badminton players’ life skills development through the education of their entourage

Dohme et. al._Cardiff Metropolitan University

The current study has  two objectives. First, to understand the knowledge and use of life skills of adolescent badminton players and their entourage (parents/guardians and badminton staff) within a badminton setting. Second, to develop and evaluate an online educational program aimed at enhancing entourage members’ knowledge of, and ability to promote dual career badminton players’ life skills development.


Coaching Needs for Badminton Players with Intellectual Disability

Khoo et. al._Universiti Malaya

This research aimed to identify the needs of coaches and badminton players with intellectual disability. Badminton was chosen because of the sport’s increasing popularity among persons with intellectual disability


Badminton: A model for promoting well-being and livelihood in a slum community in Winneba Municipality

Acheampong et. al._University of Education, Winneba

This research examines air badminton activities as a model to promote well-being and livelihood among young people in low-income communities.


Automated Service Height Fault Detection Using Computer Vision and Machine Learning for Badminton Matches

Goh et. al._Nanyang Technological University

This research aim to develop an automatic service height fault detection system using computer vision and object detection techniques to allow for real-time
electronic service fault judging.

Bibliometric analysis of scientific production in badminton

Blanca-Torres et. al._ University of Jaén

The aim of the present study was to analyse the scientific production in the sport of badminton.

List of Member Association research projects 

The Relationship between Social Solidity and Sustainable Development in Badminton from the Perspective of the Country's Elites

Ghadimi et al._Islamic Azad University

The purpose of this study is to explain the relationship between social cohesion and sustainable development in badminton from the perspective of the country’s elites.


Sustainable Development and Solidarity (Case Study of Iran Badminton Elites)

Ghadimi et al._Islamic Azad University

The purpose of this study is to investigate the foundations of society on sustainable and cognitive development of solidarity from the perspective of the country’s Badminton elites


The Role of Women’s Sports Participation on the Socially Anomalous Behaviors in Racket Sports

Madadi et al._Islamic Azad University

The purpose of this study is to explain the motivation of women’s sports participation on the tendency to socially anomalous behaviors in racket sports.